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Advertising ABC, names and parameters of the advertising surfaces, Terms and Conditions, Advertising Code.

Advertising ABC

Above The Line (ATL): advertising through the mass media (eg, use of + TV, press etc).

Affinity index (AFF): It is an efficiency indicator used in media planning. It shows the representation of a particular target group compared to the total population in case of a certain program /media. The affinity index is calculated: TRP / GRP. If this ratio is greater than 1 (100%), it means that the examined program / media clearly target the audience. The higher is that number, the better the media / program is targeting.

Frequency: shows that one member of our target audience average of how many times met with our advertising message.

Below The Line (BTL): It is a form of advertising which doesn’t use mass media (e.g. direct mail, promotions, etc.).

TG – Target Group: the group of people who want to be achieved – defined by marketing objectives – during the campaign.

TA – Target Audience: the group which is the closest to the target group, it can be treated by the media research and can be measured reliably.

CPP (Cost per Point): The access cost of the 1% of a certain target group (1 rating point) through a given medium.

Effective Frequency: in order to meet with our expected objectives by our campaign, our target audience should meet with our advertisement on several occasions. These frequency levels where the commercials are the most efficient are called effective frequency (e.g., 3 +, 4 +).

Effective Reach: the percentage of your target audience, which is reached with effective frequency during our campaign (e.g. 50% 3 +, 4 + 50%).

Flight / Burst: a continuous period of the running campaign.

GRP (gross rating point): the overall “rating” point. The total of those ratings which are produced by media tools in a certain campaign.

Conversion: It is ratio which shows that in a given period, two different target audiences in a given channel, during a time of day, in a program, in a block of advertisement or even during an advertising spot, in what proportion in relation to each other was represented in front of the screen.

Cost calculation:

  • Gross cost: the advertising spending increased with extra charges and calculated with tariff rates (VAT excluded).
  • Net cost: the gross cost minus the volume discount.
  • Net-net cost: the net cost minus the agency discount.
  • Costumer cost: net-net cost plus agency fee.

SHR – share: the share of a given channel compared to the others from the segment of the target group who consumed a type of media in an examined time.

COV – coverage: the share of the target audience expressed in percentage, who have had the occasion to see an advertisement.

Linear pricing: the proportional calculation of the cost of the advertisements longer than 30 seconds (30″-100%; 35″-116,7%; 40″-133,3%; 45″-150%; 50″-166,7%; 55″-183,3%; 60″-200%).

Non linear pricing: the proportional calculation of the cost of the advertisements shorter than 30 seconds (5″-30%, 10″-50%, 15″-65%, 20″-80%, 25″-90%, 30″-100%).

Day Parts: These are intervals which are in connection with the most viewed bands by certain target audiences. In case of the RTL Klub it can be talked about the following day parts:

• during the day: 06:00 to 15:59
• before prime time: 4:00 p.m. to 6:59 p.m.
• in prime time: 7:00 p.m. to 10:59 p.m.
• Late Night: 11:00 p.m. to 5:59 a.m.

RCH – Reach: the percentage of the target group who met with the advertising message at least one time during the campaign. Net Reach = 1+ Coverage (Coverage).

OTS (Opportunity to See): it shows the average number of times when the members of our target group can meet with the advertisement during a determinate time (e.g. in a 4 weeks campaign).

People Meter: it is one of the most advanced television research method which continuously measure the TV watching habits of the household members, in the household panels.

Post-buy analysis: it is the evaluation of the campaign’s effective performance compared to the prior plan. The analysis includes the GRP and TRP performance, OTS, coverage and frequency analysis, etc.

Positioning: it is the favorable placement of the advertisement in the different mediums.
The placement in advertisement blocks, in television can be e.g. first block, second, or last, or second last.

Rate card: it is the price list of a given medium which in each season determine the prices of the different appearances / time tracks / programs.

Rating point: it is the part of the target audience (%) obtained by a given program / publishing. 1 rating point = 1% of the target audience.

Clutter: it has got 3 different types: 1. total advertising market noise: the totality of the ads on the market in a given period. 2. competitive advertising noise: the totality of ads which advertise concurrent brands. 3. Media noise: the totality of the ads in a given period in a determinate medium.

Share of Voice (SOV), Share of Spending (SOS): it is an advertising weight represented by one or more brands in a specific market or market segment in a determinate period. This advertising weight usually can be expressed in base of the advertising spending (SOS) or by the rating (SOV).

Strategic media planning: it is a marketing proposal provided to the preparation of marketing plans which determinate the communication objectives, the media selection and targeting.

TRP (Target Rating Point): the percentage of a specified target group which a given program/ publication can reach. 1 TRP = 1% of the specified target group.

Weekly Weight: it indicates the intensity of the campaign expressed in TRP.

Name of advertising, parameters:

  • backlight: it is a large advertising medium, illuminated from inside, front side printed “back light” ™, suitable for placement of advertising transparencies (advertising material)
  • city-light: it is a 1,17 X 1,75 m large advertising medium, located especially in big cities, in crowded areas of public transportation lines, in shopping centers, usually background lighted, suitable for placement of paper based advertising messages to the front side
  • billboard: it is a 5,04 X 2,38 m (euro) large advertising medium, located along busy roads, main roads, crowded intersections in national grid,– a part of them are specially illuminated – on which paper, sometimes transparencies based, or painted advertising messages are located.
  • building transparencies: it is a printed transparencies stretched on scaffoldings during the constructions, sometimes illuminated.
  • prism: it is a 5,04 X 2,38 m large, sometimes illuminated advertising medium, an advertising surface suitable for 3-page displaying with rotating lamellae.
  • roll-up: it is a 5,04 X 2,38 m large, sometimes illuminated advertising medium, an advertising surface suitable for 3-page displaying with after one another rotation.
  • small board (Peron): it is a 70 cm X 100 cm-es (B1) large advertising medium on the metro line.
  • telephone booth: it is an advertising medium mounted on the outside of the telephone booth in which a 70 cm X 100 cm (B1) large, or 70 x 189 cm (double-B1) large advertisement can be placed.
  • internal of vehicle: it is a specific sized advertising medium placed on the inner surfaces of bus, tram, trolley bus, cogwheel and suburban railway of which public transport vehicles at least 70% take part in public transport
  • external of vehicle: it is a specific sized advertising medium placed on the external surfaces of bus, tram, trolley bus, cogwheel and suburban railway of which public transport vehicles at least 70% take part in public transport
  • advertising column: eurolux; toledo; eskimo; shield; campaign table; pylon-mounted surfaces protected by Sample Grant of Protection. It is a 100 x 140cm large, bilateral, exterior sticked advertising medium
  • digital board:
    • Network DP Media Player: it a specially designed computer that is capable to display contents on various types of screens. We distribute two types of media player: – the WEB version for in the HTML, PHP, Flash programming experienced users – the PRO version for users without programming experience (with pre-made ​​templates editor, wizard)
    • Display: any LCD, plasma TV or professional display, video wall, projector, etc.
    • Server: content management system (CMS), of which we distribute two types: – MINI: which is able to manage max 40 Media Players at the same time -PERFORMANCE: which is able to manage max 250 Media Players at the same time
    • Content editor, -management software: – Compilation and timing of Content (playlist) – sort displays into groups (by locations, companies etc.) – timing of displays on/off
  • Monitoring software:– function of status control and log function – ensuring the display’s image online view
  • In case of the A social group the head of household is an independent or employed intellectual (with higher education degree) highly skilled top manager; middle manager or other manager with relatively numerous (six or more) staff; higher than average education level inactive who is well served by with financial property
    • Logging software:– assemble of detailed statistics and playback list (by the determined displays or by their group, or by the played content, or by the determined time interval) and automatic report sending in predetermined periods (each day, each week)

Content and distribution of the ESOMAR’s social categories

  • In case of the B social group the head of household is a highly skilled lower and-middle-manager with more than six staff; a middle manager; other manager with fewer than six staff, supervisor; higher education entrepreneur with six or more than six employees with at least secondary school education and inactive with average or better than average financial situation
  • In case of the C1 social group the head of household is a secondary education middle manager or other manager; business owner with secondary education who has at least six staff members; an agricultural producer with secondary education
  • In case of the C2 social group the head of household is an office employee; a vocational with secondary school, supervisor; an enterprise or business co-owner with five or fewer employees, an inactive with low education level but with average financial situation or an inactive with high school graduates and with below than average financial situation
  • In case of the DE social group the head of household is a vocational, unskilled worker with low educational level, an entrepreneur with fewer than six employees or an agricultural producer



Any kind of agreement is based of the “General Terms and Conditions”. With the mandate the client understands and accepts it.


Only a written order is valid. The acceptance or rejection also needs to be in written form. The modification mandates are also required to communicate in written form.


The agent undertakes to comply the placement of posters in order and on time. Claims and objections may only be enforced during the advertisement period. The client can claim compensation if there were intentional faulty performance or by gross negligence of the agent. The circumstances of vis major (natural disasters, extreme weather influences) are exempting the agent from any liability. In this case, the client in order to its choice may claim a proportional compensation (pro-rata charges refund, a new advertising tool available, etc.).

The validation of consequential damages is excluded


The agent’s responsibility does not extend to the case as the objects equipped with advertisements according to the mandates should be in operations during the agreed period. Temporary limitations or problems resulted from any kind or reason doesn’t affect the whole advertisement order just that advertising object. The contracting parties arrange this with a common agreement, with a new object offered by the agent or with related charge reduction. In case the media owner for other reasons couldn’t provide the confirmed surfaces, it is required to provide surfaces to the client elsewhere – but with double volume.


The client should provide in disposal for agent the billboards required to the advertisement. ot The agent is not liable for the possible not perfect billboard placement resulting from the lack of enough billboards.


The agent must post the billboards within 3 working days after the date of order. Only the responsible employees or the agents can carry out the affixing of the billboards


According to the Act LVIII. tv. 12 § (1) e) of Economic Advertising in 1997 it is prohibited advertising tobacco or alcoholic beverages in public education and health care facilities and within 200 meters from their entrance.

If agent violates this prohibition and will be punished, the advertiser and/or advertising agency assumes its fine.


The agent agrees and acknowledges as binding the rules of the Code of Hungarian Advertising Ethics and the decisions of Advertising Standards Board’s ad hoc committee or Hungarian Advertising Association’s Ethics Committee.


The client bears the responsibility for the content, the format (size, quality, color stability) and for the complying with official regulations. The agent can withdraw from the engagement if when it was adopted the form and content of the billboards was unknown to him and presumed it conflict with the economic advertisement law or with the Hungarian Advertising Code of Ethics. In such cases, the client must pay the rental fee of the billboards, unknown by media owner, but booked billboard places. If the client transmits the proxy of the billboards to the agent at least one week before the start of the bonding, so the agent undertakes to obtain the appropriate opinion from any possible problem arising until the date of the billboard’s placement.


In case of official prohibition of the billboards the client is obligated to pay the whole rental fee and the possibly costs of remove or new sticking of the billboards prohibited. In case of violation of the advertisement contents of the economic advertisement’s laws, the client has to assume the publisher’s fine. If a violation of the law is presumed by the authority, the client is obligated to provide to the agent all the information which can be necessary for the defense during the appeal or can be presented in the court.


If the placement or the persistence of the advertisements is rejected by the competent authority or by the owner of the object in case the billboard theme was not known all such agreement is void. The client has no right to compensation but in this cases – except for the confiscation of the billboards – the part of the rental fee paid possibly in advance will be refunded. If the agent’s right to dispose advertising object is terminated so he is obligated to provide instead of the removed billboard(s) other location(s) and inform the client about it.


The agreed number of billboards and extra billboards (at least the 20% of the displayed billboards, duty paid and the larger quantities on pallets) should be delivered a minimum of 3 working days before the start of the campaign to the agent and still that time at the latest the client is obliged to order the placement of the billboards. The agent shall not be held liable for the consequences of late delivery, however, the sticking fee ordered for each places – the additional technical costs – is entitled to bill. In this case the execution of the order is within 5 working days from the receipt of the billboards. Late sticking does not entail an extension of the expiration date.


In case of official prohibition of the billboards the client is obligated to pay the whole rental fee and the possibly costs of remove or new sticking of the billboards prohibited. In case of violation of the advertisement contents of the economic advertisement’s laws, the client has to assume the publisher’s fine. If a violation of the law is presumed by the authority, the client is obligated to provide to the agent all the information which can be necessary for the defense during the appeal or can be presented in the court.


After the order is executed the agent is not liable – in absence of a different agreement – for the remaining (unused) billboards.


For request of the analysis institutes related to the costs spent on classic media agent can communicate the quantity, the size and the type of billboards placed for the client exclusively in order to measure spending of advertising, unless client has a contrary opinion during the order fixing.


The invoice includes the tariffs valid at the date of order’s confirmation. The agent can maintain the right to change rates during the year (for example due to illumination or to the venue’s change of the advertising device), but the client must be informed in writing at least 2 months before the changes of the tariffs. In case of a one year booking the client must be informed about the new category than he can accept the new price or he can choose another surface from the same price category as the previous one was. The agent is entitled submit the rent account on the fifth day of the rental period and the client is obliged to compensate it within 30 calendar days.


In case of delayed payment the agent overcome the statutory default interest.


In case of cancellation of the written order the agent is authorized to invoice a cancellation fee. In case of withdrawal the cancellation fees are as follows:

The date of order cancellation / Cancellation fee

The rental fee of the cancelled surface(s) before the first day of the rental period

  • In more than 6 weeks, it is 5%
  • In 4 weeks, it is 20%
  • In 3 weeks, it is 30%
  • In 2 weeks, it is 60%
  • In 1 week, it is 100%

The reversed must be in writing. Its validity is the receipt date. As receipt date the parties can accept the dispatch of the fax (until 17:00 pm on working days, then from 8:00 am on the next working day).

Related concepts

I. Law of 1996 year on Radio and Television
AIDA model
Arany Penge Kreatív Advertising Competition
B2B (Business-to-Business)
B2C (Business-to-Consumer)
International Code of Advertising Ethics
Outdoor Campaigns
Night of Ad Eaters



  • Antal Zs. – Gazsó T. – Kubínyi T., ‘Médiabefolyásolási technikák kislexikona.’ Budapest : Századvég. 2005.
  • Elliot Aronson: A társas lény. Közgazdasági és Jogi Kiadó, Bp. 1978. (3. és 4. fejezet: A tömegkommunikáció, a propaganda és a meggyőzés; Az önigazolás.)
  • Fazakas I. – Harsányi D.: Marketingkommunikáció. 2000. Szókratész Külgazdasági Akadémia.
  • Fowles, J.: Advertising and Popular Culture. 1996. Sage Publications.
  • Hoffman Istvánné – Buzási J.: A reklám birodalmából. 2000. Bagolyvár.
  • Kaijdiné Suhajda Zs. – Kardos L.,: Reklámjogi és reklámetikai kézikönyv. 1998. KJK.
  • McDonough, J. – Egolf, K. (eds): The Advertising Age Encyclopedia of Advertising. 2003. Fitzroy Dearborn.
  • Anthony Pratkanis és Elliot Aronson: A rábeszélőgép. AB OVO Kiadó, 1992.
  • Szilágyi Gábor: Elemi képtan elemei. Magyar Filmintézet.1999.
  • Virányi Péter (szerk.), é.n.: Fogalomtár a reklámról. Külkereskedelmi Oktatási és Továbbképzési Központ.


The etymology of the word advertising

The word advertising has a Latin origin and it means loudly contradicted, publicize, loud shouting. In today’s sense it has been used since 1830s.

The concept and definition of advertising

The Hungarian media law defines advertising as follows: it is a track published in return for payment or for consideration to achieve the sales or other means of recourse of the stated or illustrated goods (including the property as well) services, rights and obligations and it achieve the other effects desired by the broadcaster or the advertiser’s company.

Most of the advertisement, which we meet, can reach us through some media (television, radio, newspapers, Internet). The advertisers for the broadcasting, advertising surfaces provide consideration (in most cases they pay for it). A commercial advertisement is intended to raise attention to a product or service, furthermore, to reach out to prefer such product against the competition. This process is regulated: media laws, professional codes of conduct set out the standards relating to advertising.

Advertising (Ad): it is a consideration for public communication or return for payment for the published track or provided broadcasting time which achieves the sales or other means of recourse of the stated or illustrated goods – product, service, property, rights and obligations – and it achieve the other effects desired by advertiser.

To determine the definition of advertisement regarding to media of mass communication the following funds can be considered:

“It is information published in the channels of mass media aim to influence which get to know a product, service for target groups and try to create a demand for them by emphasizing their positive features. The advertisement on the first floor of the reception informs and on the second floor influences. “(Anthony Gazsó Kubinyi, 2005: 179)

The features of the advertisement:
• informing
• raising awareness
• influencing, persuading or reminding to something
• conditioning for the practicality

The history of advertising

In the world

The advertising market always depends on the social, economic and political situation of a country. The first piece of the history of advertising is a 3000 years old papyrus scroll of an Egyptian cultivator which is currently held in the London British Museum and in which the advertiser was looking for his runaway slave. In the advertising techniques of signboards, labels, proclamations with rataplan the appearance of printing brought a decisive turn. The newspaper ads appeared in the middle of the 17th century and the posters had a function as an advertising medium from end of the18th century. (Hoffman-Búzási, 2000)

The first known print ad was a lottery poster from 1518, from Rostock. The advertising so quickly gained significance that even the religious references were allowed: a medicinal water producing French factory advertised its product as the “milk of the Virgin Maria”.

“The ad initially advertised goods, introduced shops, stores to people. Today, advertising is not an easy profession, but a serious science about which there is library of literatures and which move billions of dollars. The policy also soon recognized the importance of advertising and realized that as a detergent, a politician also ‘should be sold’. The ‘image-makers’ and the shapers were appeared who planned the appearances, clothes and the slogans of the politicians. In a major election campaign, even in Hungary parties spend serious billions to create the image of politicians. (Horvát 1998.)

The emergence of the modern advertising can be associated with the industrial commodity production, mass production and urbanization, with the appearance of the large department stores, mass communication and public transport and with the rising standard of living started in the middle of the 19th century.

The surplus production, the increase in consumer market entailed the need to align the arguments beside the same or similar quality products to affect consumer decisions by the producers. The advertiser pays for the ads in the hope that the appropriate effect will be reached in the addressed people.

In Hungary

The advertisement throughout its history has remained faithful to the original meaning of the word. At the beginning the medieval heralds often praised the good wine that for a long has been the main subject of advertising. The best evidence of the ancient origins of advertising management was that how many icce the bacteria – who propagated the weighing out wine – received in honoraria for their work as shortly after the termination of Turkish rule was already governed by regulations. So the commission is almost as old as the concept of advertising, which benefit was discovered very soon. Nothing proves this better than the Pest traders’ revolt a hundred years later, when it was demanded to preach their wares only in Hungarian. Much later, neither our famous writers nor our poets were ashamed of writing advertising poems, sometimes just for joke at other times for request. Arany János was committed to promote the Flóra soaps and detergents: Mrs. Ágnes! Are you silly? Because the flora is at your home! They never would have come out! The “Marketing Managers” of the early century were quickly realized the potential of the fantasy names, famous people’s names were also often used. In the beginning of the century the news of the popular Hunyadi János bitter reached also the Russia, but in the forties, however, the further experimentation were avert as the use of famous people’s names for advertising purposes was prohibited. Between the two wars the age of the commercial spot has come, but the striking poems have not been disappeared.

The laxative products were very popular between the two wars times, here is some examples:

”Artin drazsé sose káros,

Ettől székes a főváros.

Amíg Ön alszik, A Darmol dolgozik.

Reggelre kelve, Pizsamája telve.”

Around the years of thirty, the Hungarian writers had to decide whether the advertising is admitted in the realm of literature. The opinions were differed, while the writers began to produce ad text. Karinthy was taken by necessity, but he was not ashamed of his promotional activities, indeed he left in his testament that after his death in any case these works should be allowed to place among his all works as well. It is a living proverb still today: the slogan “Mondja marha, mért oly bús – olcsóbb a hal, mint a hús” for a long time was attributed to him although it wasn’t written by him. But neither Karinthy should be ashamed. His poems made about an insecticide protection product could be envied by any of today’s advertising agency:
”Drámát legjobban Sexpír

Poloskát Ditrichstein írt!

Így írtok ti: Karinthy –

Így írtok én: Ditricstein!”

Probably neither József Attila wanted to gain fame with advertisement texts for himself, but the posterity read with a smile his attempts. On request, he advertised the Nor-coc brand of a knitwear factory including beret:

”Mit visel úri nő és mit hord kokott Fejebúbján, ha nem Nor-coc-ot?

Sapkám Nor-coc

Ilyet hordok.”

We had therefore great writers who were not ashamed of their attempts in the advertising business. The Hungarian advertising until the end of the Second World War has developed like the advertising of the West. During the socialist period, however, because there were no real competition and there could not be chosen from many similar products (the customers were happy, if at all they could get what they were looking for) advertising had almost no needed. Nevertheless ​​”commercials” were made, but which did not meet with the technical requirements of advertising: there were more eye-catching posters, humorous films rather than encouraging works for choosing the product or service.

The periods of advertising

In the first era of the advertising strategies, the advertisement built on the presentation of the product. Initially, this disclosure of information could be very dry, but for the 20th century it has become a go-ahead. While this go-ahead was discoverable in the texts, the figures in the pictures were in some special relationship with the product. Main way nature arguments were deployed and the attention was focused on the particular characteristics of the product. Untruths have occurred but they didn’t provoke outrage. In the second era, the associated values were ​​reached a decisive role. This consists that those who used the product, looked as beautiful, young, charming and confident as the person displayed in the advertisement. Increasingly the side of the path of the conviction was chosen. In response, the advertising ethics would not let any false statements and the negative campaigns against a competitor. In associated values everything could be said. In the second era the tangible differentiation of the products was followed by an associated theoretical differentiation.
The third period is faced to a new consumer. The associated values, the inaccuracy of the advertising promises were get used and therefore they are seen with resigned preoccupied or with boredom.

The commercials with their visual and with their imaginative continued engaging the attention but the associated value was less winning. The average housewife can make more credible the subject, but it was more difficult to absorb the viewer’s attention. A very sophisticated symbolic cult of advertising was emerged. In the modern commercials, besides the twinkle the ordinarily could be found again. The mass-based persuasion techniques became important. The commercials were multiplied where experts tried to convince us. The surveys show that they were not popular, people got bored in them, but they were effective. The application of the side road and the associated values depended on the product. In the third era, not stunning, but the entertainment was the goal. The sense of duty was rarely included, the creativity was more often.
In the beginning of the 1950s was started to explore the weaknesses inherent in the traditional advertising theory. The motivation research conducted among the population pointed out that raising awareness is not as easy as previously was thought: it is easier to notice what one are interested in and it is more difficult what one do not wants to know. Furthermore, it turned out also, that the image (advertising photography), in some cases had the power of affecting, it convinced, claimed something, helped to keeping the brand in memory, recalled it. Thanks to the researches of motivation from the fifties the adherents of traditional advertising approach were increasingly pushed into the background. The modern research has shown that in people’s behavior and actions their desires were reflected. Shopping is not another than the show outwards of the personality, or just the opposite: the hide behind the goods purchased. In advertising communication should be efforts to express or enforce them or develop new behavioral models or influence of the old ones. To achieve this, the picture has an especially important role.

Types of advertising

According to subject of advertising it can be distinguished commercial, social, and political advertising. (Virányi, é.n)

The economic or commercial advertisements play a role in the acquisition of the position in a competitive market, directly related to them an economic interest by providing products and services which encourage potential customers to purchase.

The advertisements of public services are intended to promote the set out of the objective of public policy on behalf of a value adopted by a majority of society and they represent the activity of public or non-governmental, non-profit organizations, institutions, movements.

The political advertisements are aimed to promote the political program or ideology represented by a political party in order to provide each citizen to support their nominees. The same conscious image generation is behind them such as in case of the product advertisements.

According to target groups two categories can be distinguished (Fazekas I. – Harsányi D.):

  • Consumer (B2C – Business-to-Consumer) and
  • Business (B2B – Business-to-Business) advertisements.

In terms of process it can be separated the

  • Introducing ads
  • Reminder ads,
  • but its task can be also the re-positioning, to provide additional information and so on

Geographically it can be distinguished:
• local (topical)
• regional
• national

• international (global) campaigns.

Regardless of the advertising subject we can also speak about:

  • Negative advertisement, which aims to warn of a contradiction in an advertising discourse: the critics, the attack can be oriented against a specific brand, product, a concept, ideology or can go also against the general, the canonical advertising technique or the way of advertising discourse (such as the Benetton advertisements, created by Toscani). (McDonough-Egolf, 2003, 1125-1126);
  • Surreptitious advertising is a track or information in a broadcast which incentive to purchase goods, or services, or conduct any other business by demonstrating the appearance of a neutral information.

The components of advertising: brand, image, slogan, logo

The classic AIDA model shows the process of buying in four steps so those psychological steps through which consumers get to purchase: attention, interest, desire and action. In the first of two steps (AI) the advertising components listed below play a major role.

The brand serves the identification of the product and its differentiation from the competition. Each brand is imaginable as a well-developed personality behind which there is a complex marketing communication.

The brand is made unique by built around the product to advertise. The image is the total of the impressions and visions which is developed in one man or in a group of a particular person about a product or a company. In the image there are the name, packaging, pricing, advertising style and the nature of the goods as well.

(Fazakas-Harsányi, 2000) The planning of the image of a product requires a conscious marketing efforts, because the people purchase, choose primarily an image, a brand-saturated with emotional surplus and not just a specific product, service, person or principle.
The slogan includes the most important message of the advertising, the basic concept, it is usually a simple, witty, easy to remember (especially if there are playing with language) word, or a shorter sentence. It has an essential role in recalling the knowledge of the product, in buyers’ decisions. It is designed for the image of the product therefore in successful cases it accompanies the brand for years. (McDonough-Egolf, 2003, 1439-1444)

The logo, emblem, logo, emblem, a brand are the symbol of an organization which are always used as markers, therefore it’s important to be appropriate for the basic concept of a brand. Its Ancestor is the handwritten-painted signs, the signs, today’s are produced by creative, graphic designers, usually it is a simplistic drawing detail, or series of letters, often the brand name itself. (McDonough-Egolf, 2003, 950-962) These logos, as well as brand names are legally protected marks; the unauthorized use is punished by law.

Advertising media (mediums)

The media is a communication channel which exists independently from a specific message, but which we can be used to communicate or forward our own information. The mediums can be categorized in several ways. Here are described the two most commonly used classifications. In base on which our senses it impacts, it can be distinguished:

visual (press, outdoor advertising – Outdoor Campaigns

  • auditory (radio)

• audio-visual media (television, cinema, internet).

Another common classification is:

  • print media (newspapers, outdoor advertising), and
  • electronic media (radio, TV, cinema, internet).

The advertising medium is the channel that transmits our message, so the promotional tool can be showed, it carries it. The tool is the message, so it is the encrypted, objectified formulation, available to transfer in a certain channel of the message we want to say. Example: The television is the media while the advertising film is the tool. The selection of the advertising media is according to the media preferences, consumption, and lifestyle habits of target audience. The advertisements can appear in press, television, radio, internet, on public areas, means of transport, in sports facilities, as printed advertisement, as moving equipment, as a sound, as a billboard, as a lighting advertisement, as direct mail, as electronic card, as painted or electronic advertising signs or in a form of brochures, catalogs or flyers as well.

The regulations of advertisements

The commercial freedom of speech is protected by the freedom of expression, but it is not equal to the unconditional use of the right. The constraints were highlighted to a public interest. The regulation of advertising depends on the media and the countries, it is based on the International Advertising Code of Ethics (the first version was published in Paris in 1937, since has been modified several times) and it contains both professional and ethical standards. The legal framework of advertising on the radio and in television is regulated by the I. Act of 1996 about the radio and television. Its most important lines refer to the legitimacy, honesty, the social liability, the preservation of human dignity, the protection of children and they aim to respect for rights of privacy, consumer protection, health and environment. They protect the citizens from the inducements of bad consumption, in particular from the advertisements of alcohol, tobacco and drugs (Kajdiné-Kardos, 1998).

The types of the commercial tracks and activities

  • Commercial release: it is the commercial advertisement published in the media service provider’s own or other media provider’s in management relationship with it interest, against remuneration, in accordance with the Act on the basic conditions of economic advertising activities, including the program preliminary, the teleshopping, the product placement and the display of the sponsor as well as and it is also the public service advertisement and the political ad specified by special law.
  • Advertisement: it is a commercial communication published within the framework of media services; it is not including product placement and sponsorship placement.
  • Split-screen advertising: it is an advertisement published in a way to fill some parts of the screen during the communication of a track or other commercial communication.
  • Subliminal commercial communications: it is such a commercial communication, that during its publication cause visual, sound and other effect’s stimulation to the recipient of the commercial communications by the smaller intensity threshold of stimulation than in psychological sense necessary for the apperception due to the brevity of time or to other causes.
  • “Subliminal advertising: it is such an advertisement that during its publication – due to the brevity of time or to other causes – cause sound or visual stimulation to the recipient of the broadcast by the smaller intensity threshold of stimulation than necessary for the apperception” (Rttv. 2.§. 40.)
  • Television advertisement: any form of announcement which is broadcasted by a trade, profession or vocation, a public or private undertaking or natural person for payment or against similar consideration or for self-promotion in order to promote their goods or services against payment including also the immovable property, rights and obligations.
  • Teleshopping: “The advertisement that contains direct offer for the sale or otherwise recourse of goods through the contacting of the commercial distributor or vendor.” (EMtv-t. 146.§. 57.)
  • Teleshopping program window: is that at least fifteen minutes duration television shopping program which is not broadcasted in television broadcasting services specialized in purchase.
  • Product placement: is a commercial communication, which appears in the broadcast as the presentation of a product, service or their marks and also as their reference.
  • Preliminary program: is a commercial communication, which represents, familiarizes and promotes a track or tracks, wanted to be published in a later time by the media service provider or by the other provider in management relation with it.
  • Support / Sponsorship: it is that kind of contribution which is provided by public or private undertaking or natural person does not deal with audiovisual media services or production of audiovisual works for financing tracks or audiovisual media services with a view to promoting its name, trademark, image, its activities or products.
  • Sponsorship: it is a contribution of a public or private undertaking or natural person who is not involved in audiovisual media services or in the production of audiovisual works for financing tracks or audiovisual media services with a view to promoting its name, trademark, image, its activities or products.
  • Sponsor recognition: the display of the sponsorship providing company’s name or trademark or other signs referring to the sponsorship providing company in particular the display of the trademarks or distinctive sign of their produced or traded goods or their services or any of these.
  • Surreptitious audiovisual commercial communication: the broadcast presentation of the name, trade mark or the activities of goods, services or a product manufacturer or service provider formulated in words or pictures when such representation is intended to serve advertising by the media service provider and due to its nature could mislead the public. Such representation has to especially be considered intentionally if such is provided by payment or against consideration. The directive prohibits the surreptitious audiovisual commercial communication because of it has negative effect on consumers. The prohibition of surreptitious audiovisual commercial communication under the directive does not cover the legitimate product placement, if the viewer is adequately informed of the existence of product placement. This must take place by indicating – for example with a neutral logo – that in certain tracks product placement occurs.
  • Surreptitious advertising: the track or information within tracks which display in sound or in image specified or illustrated products, services, property, rights or liabilities (hereinafter: goods) or the name or trade mark of their providing or producing natural person, legal person or unincorporated business association with an intention to advertising while as regards the objective of the display it is suitable for to mislead consumers. Such display shall be considered as surreptitious advertising, especially if it was made for payment ​​or for consideration.
  • Public Service Ad: it is a commercial communication published not for political objective which calls for a public purpose, promotes these event or purpose, furthermore, call attention to the threatening circumstances to set out of such objectives and it can be a track which calls for assistance in order to support a natural person, a group of natural persons or their organization founded to support them.

Advertising Critique

The advertising is not only an economic but also a social and cultural phenomenon as well.

The commercial advertising attacks almost completely coincide with the criticism of the popular culture. (Fowles, 1996) The advertisements are the mostly rebuked because of their negative effects to the society and abuse of the symbolic codes, because they generate previously non-existent desires, needs, they contain concealed manipulation and subliminal seduction, they affect the subconscious mind, kill the consumer’s sense of critical, obscure the real social problems. The advertisement presents materialism, conformity, false values, and gender stereotypes, gives the impression of envy, anxiety and frustration.

The positive approach of advertising is negligible compared to the negative attitudes; the cultural critique researches with the introduction of joy’s reception shade the above listed attacks.

Over the convince of the market

The advertisement is sometimes removed from its traditional position of wanting to persuade the potential customers. The most creative and the highest quality ads are awarded in creative advertising competitions. (Golden Drum Advertising Festival, Cannes Advertising Festival, Golden Blade Creative Advertising Competition, Campaign Poster Advertising Awards, Effie awards) The different advertising collections, advertising exhibitions, the big movies created from promotional spots, organized promotional viewing actions – from which the most popular of the world is the Night of Ad Eaters, initiated by Jean Marie Boursicot in 1981, departed from Paris and currently presented in more than 50 countries – indicate beyond the traditional speech situation of the advertisements.

Advertising prohibitions

The Advertising Act provides various restrictions and prohibitions which are generally applicable to advertising and in addition to certain advertisements injunctions of products (drugs, tobacco, alcoholic beverages).

The general prohibition of advertising is registered in 4-7. §.:

4th § Do not publish any advertisement which

a) Violate moral rights, rights of piety and rights of personal data protection,

b) Encourage to violence or to harmful behavior to personal or public safety, environment and nature,

c) is sense of fear.

5. § (1) It is prohibited to publish an ad which is denominated for the children and young people and

a) Can harm their physical, mental or moral development

b) With the utilization of their inexperience or credulity contains a direct call to encourage the adult ones to purchase goods.

(2) It is prohibited to publish any advertisement which can damage the physical, mental or moral development of children and young people’s especially when children and young persons are presented in dangerous, violent and sexuality emphasizing situations.

6. § (1) It is prohibited to publish sealed and subliminal advertisements.

(2) Do not advertise goods whose production or distribution is unlawful.

(3) It is prohibited to publish an advertisement which instead of an actual service or bears little with it contain the promise of tax exemptions, tax reliefs and other taxation advantages or otherwise misleading in relation to the available taxation’s benefits.
(4) It is prohibited to publish an advertisement which doesn’t include all the costs incurred in connection with the payment of consumer loans.
7th § (1) It is prohibited to publish a comparative or other advertising which may conflict with the prohibition of Unfair Market Practices and the prohibition of the restriction of competition concerning in the LVII. Act of 1996 (hereinafter: Tpvt.) the prohibition of unfair competition or unfair manipulation of consumer choice.

(2) Disclose information or the comparative results of a study made by a third party or refer to these in an advertisement is possible only with the prior authorization of the person conducting the investigation.

(3) The advertiser is responsible that the comparative results and publication of data or its references neither in this case interfere with the prohibitions in paragraph of (1)-(2).

Advertising forms in the media regulation

“Advertising (Ad) is a public information published for consideration or in return for payment in track and in broadcasting time available which facilitate the achievement of sales or otherwise use for consideration or other effects desired by the advertiser of specified or illustrated goods, products, services, property, rights or liabilities.” (Rttv. 2.§. 41.)

“Advertisement is a track published for consideration which aims to encourage the achievement of sale of goods or otherwise recourse desired by the advertiser or the broadcaster. Where this Act refers to advertising, there – unless specified otherwise – all type of advertisement specified in the provisions of this Act shall be understood. (EMtv-t. 146.§. 50.)

Subliminal advertising

“Subliminal advertising: it is such an advertisement that during its publication – due to the brevity of time or to other causes – in psychological sense cause sound, visual or other stimulation to the costumer by the smaller intensity threshold of stimulation than necessary for the apperception” (Rtv.2.§. s.)

“Subliminal advertising: it is such an advertisement that during its publication – due to the brevity of time or to other causes – in psychological sense cause sound or visual stimulation to the viewer or listener of the track by the smaller intensity threshold of stimulation than necessary for the apperception” (Rttv. 2.§. 40.)

“Subliminal advertising: it is such an advertisement that during its publication – due to the brevity of time or to other causes – cause sound or visual stimulation to the viewer or listener of the track by the smaller intensity threshold of stimulation than necessary for the apperception” (EMtv-t. 146.§. 60.)

Political advertisements

The advertising law does not contain the definition of political advertising, but the media law do, indeed, the experience of recent years is reflected in the changes of the definitions as in the draft of the media law is no longer just the positive advertising, but also the invitation to reject the other candidate is considered a political ad.

“Political advertising: is a track which

a) Call for or influence to support participation in elections, successful appearances, candidate or referendum initiative,
b) Promote name, activity, goals, password, logo or image

of a party or political movement” (Rttv. 2.§. 39.)

“Political advertisement: is the advertisement which

a) Is directed to support or reject the participation in elections, the successful appearances, referendum initiative and the purpose;

b) Promote name, activity, goals, password, logo or image

of a party, political movement or a person engaging political activities” (EMtv-t. 146.§. 48.)

Surreptitious advertisements

“Surreptitious advertising: information with the impression of neutral information published in the form of advertisement.” (Rtv.2 §.. B.)

“Surreptitious advertising: track or information in tracks which with the impression of neutral information encourage to purchase goods, services, or to conduct any other business.” (§ 2 Rttv. 4.)

“Surreptitious advertising: the track or information within tracks which display in sound or in image specified or illustrated products, services, property, rights or liabilities (hereinafter: goods) or the name or trade mark of their providing or producing natural person, legal person or unincorporated business association with an intention to advertising while as regards the objective of the display it is suitable for to mislead consumers. Such display has to be considered especially intentional if it was made for payment ​​or for consideration. (EMtv-t. 146.§. 4.)

Other forms of advertising

In the draft of the media law prepared by request of ORTT can be found the definition of the other forms of advertising:

“Other forms of advertising: Any other advertising techniques other than advertising are under this Act which is for promotional purposes using new technologies.” (EMtv-t. 146.§. 7.)

The concept introduced apparently applies to advertisements published in new broadcasting platforms which are neither advertisements nor a television shopping. The law’s exact meaning of this concept can be found neither in the Act nor in the explanatory memorandum attached to the law.